

Lighting calculations have always been part of the basic practice of illuminating engineering. Calculations using a simple hand calculator (or slide rule) were once common, but the results of this type of calculation are limited to broad generalizations and averages. These days, computer calculations, requiring merely a modest personal computer and relatively lowcost software, are the standard for virtually every lighting practitioner. This section describes tools and methods for making lighting calculations (see Lighting Analysis Tools following) and evaluating the cost effectiveness of design alternatives. Hand Calculations Computer Programs Specialty Calculations Exterior Calculations Daylighting Analysis Tools Calculation Software Energy Simulation Programs Application Guidelines 