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Advanced Lighting Guidelines for Lighting Designers & Engineers
Advanced Lighting Guidelines for Architects & Builders
  Advanced Lighting Guidelines for Educators & Students
Advanced Lighting Guidelines for Energy Efficiency & Facilities Managers
Glossary
Community
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About Advanced Buildings
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Application Directory
Retail Applications
Design Strategies
Daylight
Ambient Lighting Strategies
Accent Lighting Strategies
Lighting Controls
Big Box Applications
General Merchandise
Point of Sales
Product Display
 
Grocery Applications
Bakery/Deli
Freezer Cases
General Merchandise
Pharmacy
Point of Sales
Produce
Specialty Merchandise
 
Pharmacy
Center Aisle
General Merchandise
Perimeter
 
Specialty Market
Bakery
Cafe
General Merchandise
Point of Sales
Produce
Specialty Merchandise
 
Office Applications
Daylighting Integration
Direct and Reflected Glare Control
Luminances of Room Surfaces
Appearance of Space and Luminaires
Light Distribution
Reflectances and Finishes
Shadows
Relationship - Light Sources, Visual Task, Viewer
Facial Modeling
Energy Effective Office Layouts
 
Open-Plan Office
High Density1
High Density2
High Density3
Medium Density1
Medium Density2
Medium Density3
Wallwash1
Wallwash2
 
Enclosed Office
Small1
Small2
Medium1
Medium2
Large1
Large2
 
Meeting-Training Room
Daylit Meeting1
Daylit Training1
Interior Meeting1
Interior Meeting2
Interior Training1
 
Corridor
Enclosed1
Enclosed2
Reception Area
Interior1
Interior2
 
Luminaire Directory
Interior Luminaires
Recessed & Semi-Recessed
Linear General
Lensed Fluorescent Troffer
Narrow Parabolic Louver Fluorescent
Wide Parabolic Louver Fluorescent
Recessed "Indirect" Basket Troffer with Perforated Metal Shield
Recessed "Indirect" Basket Troffer with Louvers
Point General
Recessed Round Downlight - non IC Housing
Recessed Square Downlight - non IC Housing
CFL Round Downlight - IC Housing
CFL Square Downlight w/ Regressed Lens - IC Housing
Metal Halide Round or Square Downlight
Linear Wallwash
Recessed Linear Wall-Washer
Recessed Wall Slot
Point Wallwash
Recessed Round Wall-Washer
Point Adjustable
Metal Halide Round or Square Adjustable Accent Light - IC Housing
Recessed Adjustable Accent Light
Ceiling-Mounted
Linear General
Open Fluorescent Striplight
Open Fluorescent Industrial with Reflector
Surface Mounted Luminaire with Daylight and Occupancy Sensors
Fluorescent Industrial Multi-Lamp with Louvers
Fluorescent Industrial Multi-Lamp with No Louvers
Point General
Open HID High-Bay with Metal Reflector
Open HID High-Bay with Glass/Plastic Reflector
Lensed HID Low-Bay Luminaire
Suspended
Linear General
Suspended Indirect Fluorescent Luminaire
Suspended Direct-Indirect Fluorescent Luminaire (mostly down)
Suspended Direct-Indirect Fluorescent Luminaire (mostly up)
Suspended Direct-Indirect Luminaire with Waveguide Optics (mostly up)
Suspended Direct-Indirect Luminaire for close-to-the-ceiling applications
Suspended Direct-Indirect Luminaire with fully-integrated sensors
Point General
Decorative Direct Pendant with Opaque Shield
Decorative Direct-Indirect Pendant
Lensed CFL "Low-bay" Luminaire
Decorative Direct Pendant with Diffuse Glass Shade
Decorative Direct Pendant with Diffuse Glass Shade
Track-Mounted
Linear Wallwash
Fluorescent Track Light
Point Wallwash
Metal Halide Wallwash Track Light
Point Adjustable
Metal Halide Track Light with Adjustable Focus
Metal Halide Track Light - PAR Lamp
Metal Halide MR-16 Track Light
LED Track Light
Current Limiting Device for Track Lighting
Wall-Mounted & Wall-Recessed
Linear General
Cove-Mounted Uplight
Point General
Wall-Mounted Uplight
Decorative Sconce
Wall-Mounted Sconce
Steplight
Recessed LED Steplight
Furniture-Mounted & Task
Under-Cabinet
Fixed Location or Furniture Integrated T5 Task Light
LED Under-cabinet Task Light
Desktop
Portable CFL Task Light
Portable LED Task Light
Exterior Luminaires
Recessed & Semi-Recessed
Canopy Downlight
Semi-Recessed Canopy Luminaire
Wall-Mounted & Wall-Recessed
Exterior Sconce
Wall-Mounted Exterior Sconce
Wall Pack
Full Cut-Off Wall Pack
Building Facade
Building Facade Luminaire - Uplight
Signage
Direct Fluorescent Signage Luminaire
Indirect Fluorescent Signage Luminaire
Steplight
Semi-Recessed LED Steplight
Pole-Mounted
Roadway
High Performance Roadway Luminaire
Pedestrian Area
Pedestrian Area Luminaire
Parking Lot
Parking Lot Luminaire
Specialty Products
Fiber Optic
Fiber Optic System
Fiber Optic System - End Emitting
Fiber Optic System - Side Emitting
Light Pipe  
Light Pipe Types
Light Pipe - < 180° degree emitting sector
Light Pipe - 360° emitting sector
Wave Guide  
Wave Guide Types
Direct-Indirect Pendant with Waveguide Optics to Direct Light
Color-Changing  
Color-Changing Types
RGB Fluorescent Color-Changing Luminaire
LED Color Changing – Luminaire - Cove Accent Wash
LED Color Changing – Luminaire - Cove Accent Wash
Exit & Egress
Fluorescent Stairwell
Fluorescent Stairwell Types
Surface Mounted Luminaire with Controls
LED Steplight
LED Steplight Types
Recessed LED Steplight
Semi-Recessed LED Steplight
 
Light & Vision
The Purpose of Lighting
Light
Quantifying Light
Physical Measures
Luminous Flux
Luminous Intensity
Illuminance
Luminance
Diffuse Reflectance
Basic Calculations
The Visual System
The Eye
The Retina
Photopic, Scotopic & Mesopic Vision
Adaptation
Color Vision
Perception
Modes of Appearance
Memory and Meaning
Ageing
Visibility
Threshold Contrast
Visual Acuity
Color Discrimination
Flicker
Interactions
Helping People to See
Illuminating Critical Objects
Avoiding Glare
Disability Glare
Discomfort Glare
Adaptive Environments
Strategies to Allow Adaptation
Ergonomic Consequences of Poor Lighting
Resources & Bibliography
Further Reading
Light & Vision Bibliography
 
 
Health & Performance
Lighting & Performance
Visual Performance
Lighting & Visual Performance
Improving Visual Performance
Visual Search
Improving Visual Search
Performance in Mesopic Conditions
Improving Performance in Mesopic Conditions
Lighting At Different Times
Working at Night
Improving Task Performance at Night
Work During the Day
Behavior  
Attracting Attention
Communication
Wayfinding
Mood & Motivation
Appearance & Appraisal
Light Preferences
Social Interactions
Lighting & Human Health  
Eyestrain  
How to Avoid Eyestrain
Flicker  
How to Reduce Flicker
Circadian System  
Some Circadian Physiology
Light & the Circadian System
Circadian Disruption & Health
Sleep Problems
Alzheimer's Disease
Cancer  
How to Avoid Circadian Disruption
Well Being  
Light Dose
Light Therapy
Lighting For The Elderly
Ageing Sight
How to Provide Lighting for the Elderly
Optical Radiation  
Negative Effects On The Eye
Visible & Near Infrared Radiation
Ultraviolet Radiation
Infrared Radiation
Negative Effects On The Skin
Visible & Infrared Radiation
Ultraviolet Radiation
Threshold Limit Values
Limiting Risk  
Positive Effects  
Vitamin D
Medical Treatments
Germicidal Action
Lighting & Productivity  
Productivity Definitions
Productivity Evidence
The Future  
Limitations & Opportunities
Resources & Bibliography  
Further Reading  
Health & Performance Bibliography
 
Daylighting  
Technical Background  
Daylighting Benefits
Psychological Benefits
Biological Benefits
Energy Benefits
Daylighting Challenges
Dynamic Nature
Electric Lighting Controls
Integrated Design
Daylighting Sources  
The Sun  
The Solar Spectrum
Solar Angles & Sun Paths
Sun Path Diagrams
The Sky  
Standard Sky Luminance Distributions
Reflected Daylight
Daylight Availability
Daylight Characteristics
Intensity, Luminance and Illuminance
Spectral Distribution
Color Temperature
Color Rendering
Luminous Efficacy
Daylighting Strategies  
Performance Parameters
Daylight Metrics
Emerging Daylight Metrics
Design Parameters
Context Parameters
Schematic Design Decisions
Building Shape and Mass
Building Orientation
Side-Lighting  
Light Shelves
Window Size and Position
Side-lighting and Interior Surfaces
Top-Lighting  
Skylights  
Tubular Daylighting Devices
Clerestories, Monitors and Saw-tooth Roofs
Atria  
Core Daylighting  
Fenestration Technologies  
Fenestration Properties
Solar/Optical Properties
Dirt Factor
Thermal Properties
Glazing Systems  
Glass  
Glazing Treatments
Light-Redirecting Materials
Dynamic Glazings
Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Systems
Retrofit Films
Shading Systems  
Exterior vs. Interior Shading Systems
Shading Masks
Dynamic Shading Systems
Top-light Shading
Electric Lighting Integration  
Energy Savings  
Top and Side-Lighting
Electric Lighting Controls  
Switching & Dimming
Dimming  
Switching
Determining Available Daylight
Time-based Strategies
Photosensing Strategies
Photosensing Technologies
Control Algorithms
Switching Algorithms
Dimming Algorithms
Photosensor Controls Commissioning
Barriers to Effective Daylighting
Single Sensor Approaches
Emerging Technologies - Photosensors
Daylight Simulation Tools  
Manual Methods & Tools
Sun Path Diagrams
Physical Scale Models
Computer-Based Tools
Daylight Performance Simulation Tools
Energy Performance Simulation Tools
Resources & Bibliography  
Further Reading  
Daylighting Bibliography
 
Sources & Auxiliaries  
Technical Background  
Energy Efficiency Terminology
Energy Efficiency Terminology
Equipment Efficiency  
        Equipment Efficacy
Application Efficiency
Lamp Life  
Mortality Curves
Lumen Maintenance Curves
Life vs. Hours/Start Ratings
Additional Considerations for Lamp Life
Maintenance of Light Output
Color  
Spectral Power Distribution
Chromaticity
Lamp Color Mixing
Color Rendering
Efficient Lighting and Color
Lamp Color Selection Guidelines
Power Quality  
Lamp Temperature Characteristics
Fluorescent Lamps
LEDs  
Incandescent Lamps  
Science of Incandescent Lamps
Incandescent A-Lamps
Incandescent Reflector Lamps
Tungsten-Halogen Incandescent Lamps
Linear Double-Ended Lamps 
Capsule Lamps
Lamps within Lamps
MR Lamps
High-Performance Infrared Reflecting
Incandescent Lamp Dimming
Incandescent Lamps - Application Guidelines
Unique Life and Failure Characteristics
Specifying Beam Characteristic
Fluorescent Lamps  
Fluorescent Lamp Technology
Science of Fluorescents
Fluorescent Technology Overview
Fluorescent Lamp Life
Dimming Fluorescent Lamps
Mercury in Fluorescent Lamps
Linear Fluorescent Lamps
T12 Lamps
T8 Lamps
T5 Lamps  
Energy-Efficient Ballasts
Ballast Factor
Ballast Efficacy Factor
Lamp-Ballast System Efficacy
Electronic Ballasts
Electronic Ballast Types
Application Guidelines
Energy-Saving Fluorescent Lamps
Long-Life Fluorescent Lamps
More Controllable
Low-Mercury Lamps
Lamp Coatings
Amalgam Lamps
High-Efficiency Electronic Ballasts
Tunable Ballast Factor
Parallel Lamp Operation
Dimmable Electronic Ballasts
Application Guidelines for Fluorescent Systems
Compact Fluorescent Lamps
Screw-Base CFLs
Pin-Base CFL Products
CFL Lamp Range
CFL Dimming and Switching
Amalgam Lamps
Temperature and Burning Position
CFL System Performance
HID Lamps  
HID Lamps & Systems
Science of HID Lamps
Mercury Vapor Lamps
Metal Halide Lamps
High-Pressure Sodium Lamps
HID Lamp Dimming
Special Application Considerations
Metal Halide Lamps
Color Shift
Double-Ended Lamps
Open-Luminaire (Protected) Lamps
Instant-Restrike Lamps
Directional Metal Halide Lamps
Pulse-Start Lamps
Ceramic Arc Tube (CMH)
High-Pressure Sodium Lamp
Standard Lamps 
PAR and R Types 
Double-Ended High-Pressure Sodium Lamps
White High-Pressure Sodium Lamps
Unsaturated High-Pressure Sodium Lamps
Mercury-Free High-Pressure Sodium Lamps
HID Ballasts  
Magnetic Ballasts
Electronic Ballasts
HID Application Guidelines
Primary Applications
The Trend Toward High Efficiency
Pulse-Start Systems
Electronic Ballasts
Controllability
Selecting The Right System
Advanced Ideas
Special Application Considerations for HID Lamps
Low-Pressure Sodium Lamps
Light-Emitting Diodes  
LEDs  
LED Components
LED Luminaires
LED Replacement Lamps
LED Modules
LED Dimming
Science of LEDs  
LED Colors  
LED Binning
LED Drivers  
LED Systems  
LED Heat Sinking
LED System Metrics
Photometry: Absolute Versus Relative
Lumen Output
Color  
Lifetime  
LED Application Guidelines
Other Light Sources  
Other Light Sources
        Induction
Plasma
Organic Light-Emitting Diodes
Photoluminescent
Resources & Bibliography  
       
Luminaires & Distribution  
Importance of Luminaires  
Light Distribution  
Efficiency, Efficacy & Effectiveness
Luminaire Effectiveness
Lighting Quality Issues
Appearance & Architectural Integration
Visual Comfort & Glare
Light Pollution 
Modeling of Light on Faces & Objects
Surface Brightness, Light Distribution & Patterns
Lighting Quality Issues & Design Considerations
Definition of Advanced Luminaires
Luminaire Components  
Sources, Power Supplies & Ballasts
Reflectors  
Shielding & Diffusion Components
Refracting Lens Materials
Holographic Lens Materials
Diffusing Materials
Opaque Shielding Materials
      Housings  
Controls  
Luminaire Selection  
Performance Criteria
Photometric Data  
Luminaire Efficiency
Luminous Intensity Distribution Curve
Spacing Criterion
Coefficient of Utilization (CU)
Light Loss Factors (LLF)
Photometry for LED Products
Maintenance & Durability
Luminaires & Sustainability
Manufacturing
Resource Conservation
Toxicity  
Embodied Energy
Luminaire Recycling
Packaging Waste
LED Luminaire Issues
Glare  
Heat  
Lumen Output & Power Consumption
Color  
Cost Strategies  
Guideline Specifications  
Proprietary & Three-Name Specifications
      Performance Specifications
      Energy Star
Design Lights Consortium
ALG Luminaire Directory  
Interior Luminaires  
Ceiling Recessed & Semi-Recessed
Ceiling-Mounted  
Suspended  
Track-Mounted  
Wall-Mounted & Wall-Recessed
Task Lighting & Furniture-Mounted
Portable  
Exterior Luminaires  
Ceiling Recessed & Semi-Recessed
Ceiling-Mounted & Suspended
Wall-Mounted & Wall-Recessed
Pole-Mounted  
Ground or Grade-Mounted
Specialty Products  
Fiber Optic  
Light Pipe  
Wave Guide  
Color Changing Systems
LED Marker Lighting
Exit & Egress  
LED Exit Signs & Egress Luminaires
Photoluminescent Exit Signs
Emergency Lighting
Fluorescent Battery Inverters
Metal Halide Arc-Retention
Concealed Emergency Luminaires
Luminaires with Integral Controls
Interior Retrofits  
Linear Fluorescent Retrofits
CFL Screw-in Retrofit
CMH Screw-in Retrofit
LED Retrofits  
Skylights  
Exterior Retrofits  
Full Cutoff Luminaires
LED Retrofit Kits  
Resources & Bibliography  
 
Lighting Controls  
Basics  
Purposes & Goals  
Visual Needs
Energy Management
Demand Response
Controls, Codes & Standards
Controls, Codes & Standards - page 1
Controls, Codes & Standards - page 2
Types of Control  
Switching
Dimming  
Control Wiring  
Line-Voltage Wiring
Low-Voltage Wiring
Low-Voltage Wiring: Analog Vs. Digital
Low-Voltage Control Wiring: Prefabricated Option
Strategies  
Manual Control  
Manual Dimming
Bilevel and Multilevel Switching
Automatic Control
Occupancy Sensing
Scheduling
Daylight Harvesting Control 
Load Shedding
Adaptive Compensation
Lumen Maintenance Dimming
Devices, Systems & Equipment
Manual Lighting Controls
Switches  
Dimmers  
Low-Voltage Control Systems
Centralized Vs. Distributed Control
Occupant Overrides
Display, Outdoor, Emergency Lighting
Commissioning, Adjustments and Procedures
Occupancy & Vacancy Sensors
Occupancy Sensing - Ultrasonic
Occupancy Sensing - Passive Infrared
Occupancy Sensing - Microwave
Occupancy Sensing - Dual Technology
Coverage Area and Patterns
Mounting Packages - Ceiling and Wall
Mounting Packages - Integrated or Attached
Operational Features of Occupancy Sensors
Occupancy Sensors and Emergency Lighting
Commissioning, Adjustments and Procedures
Automatic Daylight Harvesting
Switching Vs. Dimming
Closed Loop Vs. Open Loop
Photosensors
Control Algorithms
Zoning  
Placing the Photosensor
Commissioning, Adjustments & Procedures
Dimming  
Dimming Level and Range
Lamps and Ballasts
Digital Dimming Ballasts
Controlling HID Lamps
        Controlling Induction Lamps
Controlling Plasma, Neon and Cold Cathode Lamps
Dimming LEDs
Dimming Controls
Commissioning, Adjustments & Procedures
Integrated Lighting Control  
Lighting Control Integration
Multifunction Control Devices
Integrated Control Systems
Multifunction Controllers
Control Protocols  
Building Control Integration
Building Integration Issues
Campus & Enterprise Integration
Wireless Control Systems  
Wireless Infrared  
Powerline Carrier
Radio Frequency  
Digital Control Systems  
Digital Lighting Control Systems
Emergency Lighting  
Normal Operation
Emergency Lighting
Backup Generator Operation
Commissioning & Acceptance Testing
Definition  
Responsibilities  
Design Intent  
System Activation
Field Calibration  
Verification & Performance Testing
Owner Notification
Resources & Bibliography  
Further Reading  
Lighting Controls Bibliography
 
Design Considerations  
Design & Redesign  
Opening Assessment
Lighting Quality  
Prioritizing Criteria
Lighting Quantity  
Task Illuminance  
Setting Illumination Levels
Illumination Based on Spectrum
Interior Lighting Spectrum
Non-Central Vision & Brightness Perception
Task Visibility  
Details of Task Visibility
Disability Glare  
Reflected Glare  
Source/Task/Eye Geometry
Intrinsic Material Considerations
Shadows  
Peripheral Detection
Visual Comfort  
Discomfort & Overhead Glare
Flicker & Strobe  
Color Considerations  
Chromaticity  
Color Rendering  
Design Considerations for Color
Light Distribution & Spaces  
Light Distribution on Surfaces
Surface Characteristics
Patterns  
Points of Interest  
Sparkle  
Uniformity on Task Plane
Distribution & Energy Effectiveness
Task/Ambient Lighting
Ambient Requirements
Task Requirements
Modeling Three-Dimensional Objects
Space & Luminaires
Daylight & View  
Benefits of Daylight as a Source
Daylight in Lighting Terms
Daylighting Control
System Flexibility  
Flexibility Recommendations
Dynamic Light Level Selection
Economics, Energy & the Environment
Light Pollution & Light Trespass
Codes & Standards
Safety  
Cost  
Maintenance  
Energy  
Controls for Energy Conservation
Sustainability  
Validation  
Hand Calculations
Computer Programs
Specialty Calculations
Exterior Calculations
Daylighting Analysis Tools
Manual Calculations
Scale Models
Computer Simulations
Calculation Software
Energy Simulation Programs
Application Guidelines
General Lighting
Multi-component Lighting Design
Cautions for Point Calculations
Implementation
Commissioning
Economic Analysis of Systems
Economic Limitations
Substitutions
Importance of Initial Cost
Market Culture
Economic Decision-Making
Design & Management 
Initial Installed Cost
Commissioning Cost
Cost & Value
Energy Cost
Maintenance Cost
Productivity Benefits
Environmental Impacts
Procurement Options
Retrofit Assessment & Audits
Screening
Scoping Studies
Investment-Grade Audits
Resources & Bibiography  
Further Reading
Design Considerations Bibliography
 
Policies & Programs
Energy Impacts of Lighting
Lighting Energy Use
Energy Use by Building Type
Energy Use as a Percentage of Whole Building Use
Energy Use Intensity
Light Power Density
Lighting Impacts on HVAC Systems
Lighting Impacts on Peak Electric Loads
Demand Charges
Peak Loads
Load Shedding & Demand Response
Daylight Opportunities
Environmental Impacts
Energy & The Environment
Smart Grid
Resource Efficiency
Embodied Energy
Disposal Issues  
Ballast Toxin Issues & Disposal
Lamp Toxin Issues & Disposal
Light Pollution  
Light Trespass
Sky Glow  
Competitive Retail Lighting
Light Pollution & Safety
Light Pollution & Health
Light Pollution & Ecological Impacts
Light Pollution & Impacts on Energy Use
Recent Regulations & Incentives
Energy Policies, Codes & Programs
Federal Energy Policy & Standards
Energy Codes
Energy Code Structure
National Energy Codes
State Energy Codes
Compliance & Enforcement
Standard Input Values
Voluntary Programs
Green Ratings & Reach Codes
Utility Incentive Programs
Tax Benefits
Post Occupancy Evaluation
Products & Equipment
Equipment Standards
ENERGY STAR® Products
Product Rating Systems
Design & Construction Standards
Construction Codes & Certifications
Safety Code
Access Codes (ADA)
Electrical Equipment Certifications
Professional Standards & Organizations
NCQLP
Professional Associations
IES Recommendations & Standards
CIE
Policies & Programs Bibiography
Further Reading
Design Considerations Bibliography


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